There are also 50 local universities, as well as a handful of government schools whose focus is on technical, vocational and teacher training. (2003) investigated the relative importance of rural versus urban areas in terms of eight related living standards indicators including education. The University of San Carlos makes the claim of tracing its roots to the Colegio de San Ildefonso founded by the Spanish Jesuits fathers Antonio Sedeno, Pedro Chirino and Antonio Pereira in 1595. Not surprisingly, students who hail from Philippine urban areas tend to score much higher in subjects such as mathematics and science than students in the more rural areas of the country. Private universities and colleges adhere to the regulations and orders of CHED, although a select few are granted autonomy or deregulated status in recognition of their dedicated service through quality education and research when they reach a certain level of accreditation. Fidel Villarroel, OP, respected historian and former archivist of Santo Tomas, have also questioned San Carlos' claim of tracing its roots to the 16th Century Colegio de San Ildefonso. The Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades (DHVCAT) in Bacolor, Pampanga is said to be the oldest official vocational school in Asia. photo src: cnylearns.org During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines (1521-1898), the culture of the archipelago experienced a maj... photo src: www.csus.edu The Doctor of Education ( EdD or DEd ; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis ) is a doctoral degree that... photo src: newdirectionira.com A Roth IRA (individual retirement account) is a retirement plan under US law that is generally not taxed, pr... photo src: havenhillbaptistchurch.com Education and Research Network (ERNET), India is an autonomous scientific society of Ministry of Comm... Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule. The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José (1601) and took over the management of a school that became the Escuela Municipal (1859, later renamed Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865, now the Ateneo de Manila University). Students who fail to earn a rating of 75 percent in any given subject must repeat that subject, although in most cases they are permitted to enter the next grade. In recent years, vocational and technical education has become very popular in the Philippines. The educational system in Spain is based on the Fundamental Law of Education (Ley Orgánica de Educación) which makes education compulsory and free for children between 6 and 16 years old.It includes primary education from ages 6 to 12 and compulsory secondary education going up until age 16 and secondary education phase in which students are required to complete the Spanish School … In … In 1590, the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits, initially as the Colegio-Seminario de San Ignacio. These programs, however, span far beyond the normal two years of study. This was ten years before Japan had a compulsory form of free modern public education and forty years before the American government started an English-based public school system in the Philippines. The range of subjects being taught were very advanced, as can be seen from the Syllabus of Education in the Municipal Atheneum of Manila, that included Algebra, Agriculture, Arithmetic, Chemistry, Commerce, English, French, Geography, Geometry, Greek, History, Latin, Mechanics, Natural History, Painting, Philosophy, Physics, Rhetoric and Poetry, Spanish Classics, Spanish Composition, Topography, and Trigonometry. The following are the classes and their differences: One of these schools was the Escuela Normal Elemental, which, in 1896 became the Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros de Manila (Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses). Today’s system has been shaped by the Philippines’ colonial and post-war history. Its mission was to provide theoretical and practical education by agricultural engineers to skilled farmers and overseers, and to promote agricultural development by means of observation, experiment and investigation. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. Paaralang Elementarya or elementary education is the first part of the educational system, and it includes the first six years of compulsory education from grade 1 to 6, with an optional 7th grade offered by some schools. In 1640, the Universidad de San Felipe de Austria was established in Manila. Schooling is compulsory for 6 years, beginning at age 7 and culminating at age 12. Friars and nuns were the teachers at these schools. All of them provided courses leading to different prestigious degrees, like the Bachiller en Artes, that by the 19th century included science subjects such as physics, chemistry, natural history and mathematics. On April 28, 1611, the Universidad de Santo Tomás was founded in Manila, initially named as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario and later renamed as Colegio de Santo Tomas. The royal decree provided for a complete educational system which would consist of primary, secondary and tertiary levels, finally making officially available to Filipinos valuable training for leadership after three centuries of colonization. To qualify for a Master’s degree, students must possess a bachelor’s degree in a related field, with an average grade equal to or better than 2.00, 85 percent or B average. Agricultural schools and monitoring stations, run by professors who were agricultural engineers, were also established in Isabela, Ilocos, Albay, Cebú, Iloílo, Leyte and parts of Mindanao. Primary schools, colleges and universities were established in our country by the missionaries. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. Finally, the Philippine Commission made no reference to the fact that the pioneering public school education introduced by Spain in the Philippines was the first of its kind in all of Asia, and the first to be established in any European colony in the world. Spanish policies and practices created the typical dual system of colonial education, one set of schools for Filipino youth and an-other for the children of resident Spaniards. These secondary schools tend to offer technical and vocational instruction in one of five major fields:  agriculture, fishery, trade/technical, home industry, and non-traditional courses with a host of specializations. While Manila, the capital and largest city in the Philippines, boasts a primary school completion rate of nearly 100 percent, other areas of the country, including Mindanao and Eastern Visayas, have a primary school completion rate of only 30 percent or less. Although secondary education is not compulsory in the Philippines, it is widely attended, particularly in the more urban areas of the country. Students who complete a minimum of four years of education at any one of the country’s secondary schools typically receive a diploma, or Katibayan, from their high school. Today, the system is largely modelled on the US education system. MALOLOS CONSTITUTION Free and compulsory elementary education 1899 1901 EDUCATION ACT OF 1901 or ACT OF 74 600 teachers from the USA - Thomasites public schools Section 17 - Philippine Normal College (now PNU) 1902 ACT NO. The curriculum that students are exposed to depends on the type of school they attend. During the Spanish reign, they established Catholic-run schools. One of the more well-known of these colleges is the university of Santo Tomas, which was established back in 1611. At the end of this period, the degree of Bachiller en Farmacia was granted. Since the 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727, 20% would be approximately 1,4 million. The Philippines ranks as the 25 th in the list of countries with the worst education system. Major subjects include maths, science, English, Filipino and social sciences. Language Arts (Pilipino, English and Local Dialect). Non-University Higher Education (Vocational and Technical). End of Spanish rule in the Philippines. The education system that were nurtured by indigenous groups for thousands of years were abolished by the Spanish. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion with the aim of converting indigenous populations to the Catholic faith. Some communities utilized a writing system known as baybayin By the second half of the 17th century, the university was incorporated as a mere College of Medicine and Pharmacy into the University of Santo Tomás. The Manual de Medicinas Caseras...., written by Father Fernando de Santa María, first published in 1763, became so sought after that it was reprinted on several editions by 1885. The goal of the book was to propagate the Christian teachings around Manila. Admission into one of the country’s PhD programs is very selective, requiring, at minimum, a Master’s degree with a B average or better. Pope Pius XII designated it as La Real y Pontificia Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino Universidad Católica de Filipinas (The Catholic University of the Philippines), on 1947. Here the curriculum consists of language or communicative arts (English and Pilipino), mathematics, science, technology, and social sciences (including anthropology, Philippine history and government, economics, geography and sociology). Traditionally, the government has found it difficult to fully fund the entire education system. As a example, language, religion, measurement, and government are a few to include as sectors effected in the educational system. During the 18th century, the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Canonical Law was established. The educational content of the primary school system varies from one grade and one cycle to the next. Primary instruction was made free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. During the Spanish colonization, these schools mainly taught Spanish, Theology, Philosophy, and Geography. The study of pharmacy consisted of a preparatory course with subjects in natural history and general chemistry and five years of studies in subjects such as pharmaceutical operations at the school of pharmacy. Certain bachelor degree programs take five years rather than four years to complete, including programs in agriculture, pharmacy and engineering. A Permanent Record, or Form 137-A, listing all classes taken and grades earned, is also awarded to graduating students. Optional subjects include music, arts, physical education, and health. In time, the Spanish also set up colleges (segregated by gender). San Carlos and Santo Tomás maintain a friendly rivalry over the claim to be the oldest university in Asia. Other Filipino intellectuals, such as Graciano López Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce or Antonio Luna, who had also studied in Spain, began contributing to the cause for Filipino self-government and independence. The missionaries took charge in teaching, controlling and maintaining the rules and regulations … Within months of their arrival in Tigbauan which is in Iloilo province located in the island of Panay, Pedro Chirino and Francisco Martín had established a school for Visayan boys in 1593 in which they taught not only the catechism but reading, writing, Spanish, and liturgical music. Consequently, public school enrollment at the primary level is about 90 percent, while at the secondary level enrollment typically hovers somewhere around 75 percent. John N. Schumacher pointed out that. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. In the Philippines, the academic school year begins in June and concludes in March, a period that covers a total of 40 weeks. Entrance to the Science High Schools is also the result of competitive examinations. Other important vocational schools established were the Escuela de Contaduría, Academia de Pintura y Dibujo and the seminaries of Manila, Nueva Segovia, Cebú, Jaro and Nueva Cáceres. Technical and vocational schools and institutes offer programs in a wide range of disciplines, including agriculture, fisheries, technical trades, technical education, hotel and restaurant management, crafts, business studies, secretarial studies, and interior and fashion design. Higher education institutions can apply for volunteer accreditation through CHED—a system modeled after the regional accreditation system used in the United States. The Philippine educational system shows lasting influences of the Spanish, American, and Japanese regimes. At the secondary school level there are two main types of schools:  the general secondary schools, which enroll approximately 90 percent of all high school students, and the vocational secondary school. However, after independence, the country's educational system has constantly undergone reform. Considering the Philippines are deeply rooted Spanish influence. By the end of the Spanish colonial rule in 1898. the university had granted the degree of Licenciado en Medicina to 359 graduates and 108 medical doctors. Bachelor degree programs in the Philippines span a minimum of four years in duration. Five special institutions also provide training and education in the areas of military science and national defense. Graduates of the PSHS are bound by law to major in the pure and applied sciences, mathematics, or engineering upon entering college. The first book printed in the Philippines between 1590 and 1592 was the Chinese version of the Christian Doctrine. A version in Spanish, and in Filipino, in both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in 1593. Like the United States, the Philippine nation has an extensive and highly inclusive system of education, including higher education. Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the enactment of the Education Decree of December 20, 1863 by Queen Isabella II. During grades one and two in the Philippines, the language of instruction is generally the local dialect, of which there are over 170 nationally, of the region in which the children reside. Schooling at the secondary level spans four years in duration, grades 7-10, beginning at age 12 or 13 and culminating at age 16 or 17. Augustinian Friar Juan Zita and civic leader Don Felino Gil established the vocational school on November 4, 1861. To calculate the percentage of children on scholar age, it must be taken into account the number of children in Elementary School age (ages 5 through 13) and teenagers in High School age (ages 14 through 17). Elementary (primary) and middle (secondary) school in Spain are compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 6 to 16. Furthermore, with the opening of Suez Canal in 1869 travel to Spain become quicker, easier and more affordable, and many Filipinos took advantage of it to continue higher education in Spain and Europe, mostly in Madrid and Barcelona. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. It also commended the creation of a free public normal school to train men as teachers, supervised by the Jesuits. For example, in coastal regions, fishery is one of the most popular vocational fields offered. The Spanish government made the observatory the official institution for weather forecasting in the Philippines in 1884, and in 1885 it started its time service. Historical Development of the Philippine Education - Duration: 4:34. Its seismology section was set up in 1887, while astronomical studies began in 1899. That's about 35% of the population in School age. Education in the Philippines: Structure Education in the Philippines is offered through formal and non-formal systems. Spanish historians, writing about the early Filipinos, affirmed that there was hardly a man or woman who could not read and write. The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) was the first book printed in the Philippines in about 1590 to 1592. In 1610 Tomas Pinpin a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing", wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla, that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. Several religious congregations also established schools for orphaned girls who could not educate themselves. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion with the aim of converting indigenous populations to the Catholic faith. During the pre-colonial period, most children were provided with solely vocational training, which was supervised by parents, tribal tutors or those assigned for specific, specialized roles within their communities (for example, the babaylan). These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine, focusing mostly on the problems of infections diseases. There are four levels of accreditation: The credit and degree structure of university education in the Philippines bears a striking resemblance to that of the United States. Education from Ancient Early Filipinos The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The Education Decree of 1863 provided for the establishment of at least two free primary schools, one for boys and another for girls, in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. This did not exist in any other colony of any European power in Asia. Among the subjects being taught to girls, as reflected in the curriculum of the Colegio de Santa Isabel, were Arithmetic, Drawing, Dress-cutting, French, Geology, Geography, Geometry, History of Spain, Music, Needlework, Philippine History, Physics, Reading, Sacred History and Spanish Grammar. During the initial two years of study at one of the nation’s vocational secondary schools, students study a general vocational area (see above). English and Pilipino are taught as second languages. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. Th… The prologue read: There were also Latin schools where that language was taught together with some Spanish, since it was a mandatory requirement for the study of philosophy, theology and jurisprudence in schools like the University of Santo Tomás, run by the Dominicans. King Philip II's Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines to educate the natives, to teach them how to read and write and to learn Spanish. Admission to public schools is typically automatic for those students who have successfully completed six years of primary education. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. After primary school, however, the language of instruction is almost always English, especially in the country’s urban areas and at most of the nation’s universities. By the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia. The development of secondary s::hools in the Philippines Education in the Philippines has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone several stages of development from ancient Filipinos or the indios, Spanish occupation, American colonization and Japanese era up to the present system. The Black Legend propagation, black propaganda and yellow journalism were rampant in the last two decades of Spanish Colonial Period and throughout the American Colonial Period. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. Before 1994, the overseer of all higher education institutions was the Bureau of Higher Education, a division of the former Department of Education, Culture and Sports. It was only in the 19th century that they were able to attend the universities that had been established two centuries earlier, and it was only when the US took control of the Philippines in 1898 that consideration was given to non-religious education, English-language teaching … However, since those official figures branded by the Philippine Commission itself put the total number of municipalities in the archipelago at 900, and the number of public schools at 2,167, those numbers reveal that there was not only one school in every municipality in the Islands, but in most cases two or more. years under Spanish rule, the refo rmed educational system gave Filipinos the opportunity to pursue higher learning, study liberal western ideas and develop valuable leadership skills . The Spanish government established a school for midwives in 1879, and Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras (Superior Normal School) for female teachers in 1892. Filipinos were first given formal education under the Spanish rule. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. EDUCATION. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement, using the Spanish language as their main communication method. Aloysius Cartagenas STD, professor at the Seminario Mayor de San Carlos of Cebu, and Fr. Modern public school education was introduced in Spain only in 1857. However that assumption was completely misleading, because it takes into account all of the population, including babies and old people, when in reality public school systems are meant primarily for children and teenagers. High School in the Philippines The curriculum at the nation’s 9 Secondary Science schools is very similar to that of the General Secondary Schools. Ironically, it was during the time of American occupation of the Philippines that the results of Spanish education were more visible, especially in the literature, printed press and cinema. There are essentially three degree stages of higher education in the Philippines:  Bachelor (Batsilyer), Master (Masterado) and PhD ((Doktor sa Pilospiya). In 1521, the Spanish colonized the Philippines and made some significant cultural changes, including changes in religious practices, the political process, and the education system to name a few. Master degrees in the Philippines typically span two years for full-time students, culminating with a minor thesis or comprehensive examination. Philippine education system was focused on in Chapter II. The United States left a lasting impression on the Philippine school system. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines (1521-1898), the culture of the archipelago experienced a major transformation from a variety of native Asian and Islamic cultures and traditions, including animist religious practices, to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culture, particularly Spanish, including the Spanish language and the Catholic faith. All higher education institutions operate on a semester system—fall semester, winter semester and an optional summer term. During the early years of Spanish colonization, education was mostly barurot-oriented and controlled by the Roman Catholic Church. By the 1890s, free public secondary schools were opening outside of Manila, including 10 normal schools for women. This is one of the shortest terms of formal education in the world. Once a student successfully completes each of the six grades of primary school, he or she is awarded a certificate of graduation from the school they attended. Spanish was used as the language of instruction. This system defined the lifestyle of many individuals in the Philippines, as well as opportunities in education, occupation and marriage. Formal education typically spans 14 years and is structured in a 6+4+4 system: 6 years of primary school education, 4 years of secondary school education, and 4 years of higher education, leading to a bachelor’s degree. 7 75% of all secondary school graduates lived in urban areas. Augustinian priests were the first to build schools in the Philippines, to be followed by Francians, Jesuits, and Dominican priests. However, this claim is opposed by the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, which argues that USC only took over the facility of the former Colegio de San Ildefonso and that there is no 'visible' and 'clear' link between San Carlos and San Ildefonso. Colegio de Santa Potenciana was the first school and college for girls that opened in the Philippines, in 1589. Neither was taken into account that the schools maintained by Spain were closed and in many cases looted and badly damaged during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Revolution. The Manila School of Agriculture was created in 1887, although it was unable to open its doors until July 1889. When the Dominicans arrived in 1587, they did the same thing in their first mission in Bataan. Gunnar Myrdal, a renowned Swedish economist, observed that in 19th-century Asia, Japan and Spanish Philippines stood out because of their stress on modern public education. Certain professional degrees, such as law and medicine are begun following a first bachelor degree. Only a handful of families have maintained speaking in Spanish. For a few hundred years in the Spanish territories, this has been the case. King Philip II's Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines to educate the natives, to teach them how to read and write and to learn Spanish. Although English was the sole language of instruction in the Philippines form 1935 to 1987, the new constitution prescribed that both Pilipino (Tagalog) and English are the official language of instruction and communication. Jason Jeremy Pocaan 37,025 ... Philippines Educational System Pre-Spanish - Duration: 3:31. For instance, a student may take two years of general trade-technical courses, followed by two years specializing specifically in cabinet making. On November 20, 1645, Pope Innocent X elevated it to University. Before the Philippines attained complete independence in 1946, the country's education system was patterned on the systems of Spain and the United States--countries which colonized and governed the country for more than three hundred years. However, the latter objective was well-nigh impossible given the realities of the time. An analysis of the Philippine education under the Spanish regime was presented in the first part of Chapter III and the second part presented education under the American rule. A School of Commercial Accounting and a School of French and English Languages were established in 1839. The multiplicity of languages used in the Philippines has not affected its literacy rate of 94.6 percent, one of the highest in East Asia and the Pacific region. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. There was no Christian village without its school and all young people attended. Once a student has completed all four years of his/her secondary education, earning a 75 percent or better in all subjects, they are presented a secondary school graduation certificate. On 30 November 1900, the Philippine Commission reported to the US War Department about the state of education throughout the archipelago as follows: Those numbers led some people to conclude that less than 6% of the population were attending schools. The Filipino people were literate before the Spanish ever arrived, but the Spanish added new subjects to their academia such as math, Spanish, and business. The most prominent of the Ilustrados was José Rizal, who inspired the desire for independence with his novels written in Spanish. After nearly four centuries of Spanish rule, an educational system covering the elementary to collegiate levels was established through the promulgation of the Educational Decree of 1863. Modern public school education was introduced in Spain in 1857. Although by royal decree the friars were required to teach the Spanish language to the natives, they reasoned that it would be easier for them to learn the local languages first than trying to teach Spanish to all the population. Such system was even ahead of most of United States at the time, where by 1900 only 34 states had any kind of compulsory schooling laws requiring attendance until age 14. With the coming of Spain, the European system of education was introduced to the archipelago. It closed down in 1769 as a result of the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Philippines and didn't open again until 1783. Another claim commonly heard was that based on the official figures there couldn't be a school in every village in the Islands, as Manuel L. Quezon declared years later before the Philippine Assembly. Education was still in the early stage of development during the Spanish period. 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