This assessment can be used to identify the areas of phonological knowledge that students need to develop to read words accurately and fluently. A few studies have directly compared short-term memory capacity in deaf and hearing individuals. Further experiments are necessary to clarify the relationship between performance in our shallow phonological conditions, the use of orthography in phonological tasks, and reading comprehension in the deaf. The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive English to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate English. Deaf Educ. In order to prevent the use of word length as a strategy, words in each triad all contained the same number of letters and were either 5 or 6 letters long. In this task students demonstrate their ability to recognise words that alliterate. Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Finally, participants completed the TONI-3 (Brown, 2003) to confirm that the two groups did not have significantly different levels of non-verbal IQ in order to control for the impact of general cognitive factors in reading comprehension. doi: 10.1177/002221949202500808, Craik, F. I. M., and Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Other studies require the manipulation of written words to assess phonological awareness, but doing so inherently involves reading and orthographic processing. 3, 701–717. Repeat this process using the following text to assess the student’s ability to recognise rhyming words in text. If the student cannot think of any rhyming words, suggest that they can make up nonsense words such as ‘fay’ and ‘tay’. Trials differed as to whether they could be completed correctly based on orthography alone, like the example above (called “shallow” trials), or could not (e.g., onset of ‘Bird’ plus the rime of ‘tOE’ makes a new word ‘BOW’; called “deep” trials). 28, 874. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.28.5.874, Burgess, N., and Hitch, G. J. J. Exp. Read. (1973). Hear. R Development Core Team. doi: 10.1111/0938-8982.00023, McDougall, S., Hulme, C., Ellis, A., and Monk, A. There was a significant effect of group on the speechreading task, t(45) = 3.09, d = 0.92, p < 0.001, such that the oral deaf group performed significantly better than the deaf native signer group (Figure 5). Children's earliest words are coarse approximation of the target forms. This distinction appears relevant when considering predictors of reading. 22, 333–341. What can American Sign Language tell us about capacity limit in working memory? Twenty of the deaf native signers attended a school for the deaf during at least one phase of their education before college, and six attended a mainstream school throughout. Effects of amplification and speechreading on consonant recognition by persons with impaired hearing. doi: 10.1111/1475-3588.00201, Stahl, S. A., and Murray, B. If a picture was misnamed or misspelled, participants were informed of the mistake and it was presented again at a later time until all pictures had been named and spelled correctly. The Phoneme Judgment Task employed an ‘odd-man-out’ paradigm: three pictures were displayed in a triangle formation on a computer screen, and participants were instructed to select the item with a different sound. The sample trials contained one ‘shallow’ and one ‘deep’ trial to clarify the instructions, but also to demonstrate how they could not always be solved based on orthography alone. Demographic and language backgrounds of participants (mean scores with ranges or SD). 2. doi: 10.1080/026432997381402, Mayberry, R. I. (1994). Deaf Educ. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., et al. Child Psychol. “Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis) abilities: evidence, theory, and practice,” in Approaching Difficulties in Literacy Development: Assessment, Pedagogy, and Programmes, eds F. Fletcher-Campbell, J. Soler and G. Reid (Milton Keynes: Sage), 23–39. Neuropsychol. Markwardt, F. C. (1989). (2000). 36, 285–293. More specifically, the transparency of orthographic-to-phonological mapping was explicitly manipulated such that orthographic information, if used, could either help task performance (shallow task) or be uninformative or counter-productive (deep task). The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. All participants completed the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised: Reading Comprehension (Markwardt, 1989). Text comprehension also calls upon more general cognitive processes. Short-term memory is responsible for the temporary storage and rehearsal of new information, and long-term knowledge is responsible for storing information gained throughout the lifetime. Lang. doi: 10.1007/BF01027184, Hyde, T. S., and Jenkins, J. J. 58, 112–133. Forty-five Kindergarten students were presented with two different nonwords on screen and their gaze was tracked. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enm067, Fitzgerald, J. Fourteen participants reported not using ASL at all, while seven reported having some ASL experience starting in college. While most children can attain this quite easily, those with learning difficulties may find this much more difficult. The effect of communication mode on the development of phonemic awareness in prelingually deaf students. 38, 22–29. Knowledge of phonological coding system serves as the significant moderator. Child Psychol. For these reasons, we focus here on two distinct groups of deaf readers with early exposure to a natural language: deaf native signers of ASL, who have very limited spoken English skill, and orally trained deaf, that speak and lip-read English and were exposed to speech-based natural language and educated in mainstream schools with hearing peers, termed hereafter oral deaf. Studies that recruit deaf participants without considering their language experience are likely to encompass only a very small percentage of deaf native signers given their low prevalence, resulting in an over-emphasis on the role of English phonological skills compared to semantic-based memory skill in deaf reading. Working memory, short-term memory, and speech rate as predictors of children’s reading performance at different ages. Serv. Rev. Span was defined as the number of items recalled correctly (Rundus and Atkinson, 1970), primacy and recency scores were defined as the number of words recalled from among the first four (primacy) or last four (recency) items of the lists (Murdoch, 1962). Bilingualism 4, 105–122. Deficits in semantic processing have been linked to poor comprehension skill (Nation and Snowling, 1998b; Hagtvet, 2003; Cain and Oakhill, 2006). The comparison group received business-as-usual classroom instruction. For example, belt was the correct answer in the belt/doll/door triplet (top left). Since ASL grammar is quite different from that of English, deaf native signers not only have to identify words in another language, but they need to understand the syntactic rules that connect them. This test has been shown to be well suited to deaf populations (for a critique in hearing populations, see Keenan et al., 2006). Dev. J. Deep (C) trials did not give any orthographic cues, as all stimuli shared the same orthography of interest (e.g., first consonant: chef/church/chair; vowel: dove/rose/cone). Models 2a-g separately added the interaction terms between group and the remaining seven predictors in a stepwise manner. All stimuli were picture-based. The strongest correlations with reading comprehension for the oral deaf were measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge. The letters in the lists were the same as those used in Bavelier et al. 12, 471–480. In this task students demonstrate their ability to identify the first and last sounds in words. Lastly, there was a significant interaction between orthographic transparency and group, F(1,45) = 38.63, η2 = 0.46, p < 0.001, such that deaf native signers performance decreased more sharply from shallow to deep than did the oral deaf performance. J. Psychol. Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop and its timing. FIGURE 5. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192, Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., and Rashotte, C. A. Ask the student to practice this with the words ‘rib’, ‘tin’, ‘clap’ and ‘drank’. Using the Psychol. Please enable scripts and reload this page. While around 48% of deaf or hard-of-hearing children use “speech only” as their main mode of communication (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2005), linguistic knowledge within these individuals varies widely. Child Psychol. Deaf Educ. Interestingly, conditions that required that type of knowledge (e.g., knowing that when deciding the odd man out between ‘c’, ‘k’ and ‘p’, that ‘c’ and ‘k’ sometimes sound the same) did not reveal major differences between oral and signing deaf participants in the current work. Deaf Educ. doi: 10.1017/S014271640808017X, Colin, S., Magnan, A., Ecalle, J., and Leybaert, J. Padden, C., and Ramsey, C. (2000). 14, 641–682. Prior knowledge and reading comprehension ability of deaf adolescents. There are four assessment tasks in Part 2: In this task students demonstrate their ability to segment words into onset and rime. 60, 283–306. doi: 10.1093/deafed/eng014, Lee, J. F. (1986). Lastly, there was a significant orthographic transparency × phoneme type interaction, F(3,135) = 9.24, η2 = 0.17, p < 0.001, such that the effect of orthographic transparency was more pronounced in the first consonant condition compared to the vowel condition. Table 1 shows performance of the two deaf groups on these two sentence repetition tests. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. (2001). Participants were presented with lists of 16 words in English or in ASL, at the rate of 1 word every 5 s. Stimuli were videos of a native speaker or signer producing the list of 16 words, with a blank screen between each word. Free recall also has the added benefit of distinguishing between the primacy (recall of initial list items) and recency effects (recall of last list items), such that primacy effects depend to a larger extent on semantic processing, while recency effects reflect a greater contribution of short-term rehearsal and phonological processing similar to what is observed in serial recall tasks (Martin and Saffran, 1997; Martin and Gupta, 2004). 2. 3. In both tests, subjects saw/heard sentences of increasing complexity and length and were instructed to repeat back exactly what they saw/heard. Sci. While the emphasis on phonological awareness has been productive in motivating best practices in general reading instruction for hearing individuals (Trezek et al., 2010), it may obscure the fact that comprehension is the end goal of reading (McCardle et al., 2001). (1997). Disabil. Ask the student to practice doing this with the word ‘bat’. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read? Indeed, oral deaf individuals are more likely to attain information from articulation, visual speechreading experience, or aided residual hearing, whereas native signers are most likely acquiring phonological information solely through visual experiences such as reading and limited speechreading. Free recall memory span has also been linked with overall reading skill and comprehension (Dallago and Moely, 1980; Lee, 1986). Read. Reading comprehension and working memory in learning-disabled readers: is the phonological loop more important than the executive system? Two conditions were labeled as “shallow” and these were conditions in which a purely orthographic strategy could yield 100% accuracy. doi: 10.1080/09658410108667039, Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., Wadsworth, S. J., DeFries, J. C., and Olson, R. K. (2006). doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(74)90015-8, Bhatarah, P., Ward, G., Smith, J., and Hayes, L. (2009). We would like to thank all of the subjects recruited from the National Technical Institute of the Deaf at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA. Boutla, M., Supalla, T., and Bavelier, D. (2002). There was a significant main effect of orthographic transparency, F(1,45) = 96.25, η2 = 0.68, p < 0.001, such that participants were less accurate in the deep condition where a transparent orthographic strategy could not be used successfully compared to the shallow condition. Ask the student to practice this by producing rhymes in the following sentences. First-language acquisition after childhood differs from second-language acquisition: the case of American Sign Language. Experiment 2 aims to determine how useful these skills may be in the service of reading comprehension in each of these deaf populations and whether group differences may emerge in best predictors. The shallow condition (blue) could be solved using an orthographic strategy, while the deep (red) condition required phonological knowledge above and beyond orthography. Phonological awareness of syllables, rhymes, and phonemes in deaf children. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression. Serial recall span was measured in each participants’ preferred language (ASL for deaf native signers and English for oral deaf participants). Wagner, R. K., and Torgesen, J. K. (1987). Hauser, P. C., Paludnevičiene, R., Supalla, T., and Bavelier, D. (2008b). The orthographic transparency was manipulated in a graded manner such that orthographic information could help to accurately complete the Shallow (blue) conditions (A,B), but would be uninformative or counter-productive in the Deep (red) conditions (C,D). “Development of deaf and hard-of-hearing students’ executive function,” in Deaf Cognition, eds M. H. Marschark and P. C. Hauser (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 286–308. Morere, D. A. The items in each list were randomly assigned on a subject-by-subject basis from a list of 32 words, in order to avoid unplanned differences in word combinations that would lead one list to being ‘easier’ than the other. J. Res. Furthermore, in contrast to serial recall that heavily relies on rehearsal mechanisms, free recall tasks have longer post-stimulus delays, which are thought to allow for short-term consolidation that aids memory retrieval (Jolicœur and Dell’Acqua, 1998; Bayliss et al., 2015) although this distinction between serial and free recall continues to be debated (Bhatarah et al., 2009). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01153, Alegria, J., and Lechat, J. Psycholinguist. We note that a group of hearing participants was also evaluated on these tasks to verify that our stimuli properly assess orthographic and phonological knowledge. Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edn. Most of these students received individual speech therapy on a regular basis upon entering the school system and continued to receive speech training and gained skill in speechreading as a part of all of their academic courses. Read. Children develop some orthographic knowledge before learning to read. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5371(72)80001-X, Craik, F. I. M., and Tulving, E. (1975). Finally, deep condition D was constructed such that an orthographic strategy would routinely lead to the incorrect answer. Psychol., 25 August 2015 doi: 10.1007/BF02648162, Erber, N. P. (1974). There was no main effect of group, t(45) = 1.67, d = 0.50, p = 0.10. Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia. (1987). The assessment includes four interrelated parts: doi: 10.1111/0938-8982.00022, Gozzi, M., Geraci, C., Cecchetto, C., Perugini, M., and Papagno, C. (2011). The extant literature on Cued Speech for example makes it clear that such communication training enhances awareness of phonological knowledge for the trained spoken language (Alegria and Lechat, 2005). doi: 10.3758/BF03213198, Bellugi, U., Klima, E., and Siple, P. (1975). phonological knowledge and reading development in both native and English as Second Language (ESL) context. doi: 10.1016/0022-0965(80)90075-2, Dyer, A., MacSweeney, M., Szczerbinski, M., Green, L., and Campbell, R. (2003). Two new tests of English phonological knowledge were designed for use with our profoundly deaf participants. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2014.12.004, Bélanger, N. N., Baum, S. R., and Mayberry, R. I. Scarborough, H. S. (2009). Phonological awareness emerged more slowly with 48% of students able to reliably segment and blend phonemes in words. Disord. This is likely to be important as having access to a natural language from birth has been shown to be a precursor to good reading skill in the deaf (Chamberlain and Mayberry, 2000, 2008; Padden and Ramsey, 2000; Goldin Meadow and Mayberry, 2001). All participants were treated in accordance with the University of Rochester’s Research Subjects Review Board guidelines and were paid for their participation in the study. This assessment can be used to identify the areas of phonological knowledge that students need to develop to read words accurately and fluently. Three-sound length: ‘had’(h-a-d), ‘deep’ (d-ee-p) and ‘face’ (f-a-ce), Four-sound length: ‘dream’ (d-r-ea-m), found (f-ou-n-d) and ‘grab’ (g-r-a-b). Writ. J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav. (2007). Importantly, serial recall and other verbal STM measures have been shown to contribute unique variance in explaining reading skill compared to phonological measures alone, at least in hearing readers (Gathercole et al., 1991; McDougall et al., 1994). Verbal Behav. Students were assessed across December, February, and May of the kindergarten year. Participants viewed arrays of visual patterns of increasing complexity, with one missing component in each array. Cogn. In this task students demonstrate their ability to substitute one sound for another in words. Say to the student: Repeat this process using the following words to assess the student’s ability to substitute one sound for another in words. Br. The Deep Phonological score, r(18) = 0.66, p = 0.003, as well as serial recall span, r(18) = 0.50, p = 0.04 correlated highly with reading comprehension. doi: 10.1006/jecp.1998.2477, Swanson, H. L., and Ashbaker, M. H. (2000). Teach. The first task required participants to indicate which of three items sounded different from the other two, with the difference being sound-based and located either at the first consonant or vowel.